Top Notes - Vitamins, Dual Purpose Actives, and Other Actives
Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP) - Water soluble stable form of Vitamin C that is readily absorbed by the skin. This Vitamin C derivative boosts collagen synthesis and provides anti-oxidant protection. It also helps alleviate dark spots (see study link below).
Why do we use a stabilized form of Vitamin C instead of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) itself?
Well, ascorbic acid readily oxidizes in solution, and once oxidized, the vitamin no longer offers anti-oxidant protection. It is possible to formulate with ascorbic acid, but there are limitations (typically a low pH is required), and these limitations restrict the use of other active ingredients (most peptides require higher pH ranges than the optimal pH for ascorbic acid alone).
Panthenol (Pro-Vitamin B5) - Provides relief to dry, itchy skin. Panthenol has anti-inflammatory properties, increases skin hydration, and accelerates wound healing. This is a terrific ingredient for those with sensitive or acne prone skin.
Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) - Niacinamide is one of those ingredients that's almost too good to be true. Claims are that it reduces the appearance of age spots and other hyperpigmentation spots, improves skin sallowness, and reduces fine lines. It also boosts collagen synthesis and ceramide production and has been shown effective against acne (read studies here for overall benefits of niacinamide, here for treatment of melasma, and here for treatment of acne).
Our REM Time Night Lotions contain a combination of Niacinamide and N-Acetyl Glucosamine.
Tocopherols (Vitamin E) - Vitamin E protects oils from oxidation. Thus, it is a great ingredient for ensuring product freshness over shelf life...but what exactly does it offer? Well, blends of Vitamin E and Vitamin C show a synergistic photo-protective effect for skin cells. In fact, some of the science behind one of the most popular Vitamin C+E serums on the market can be found here.
Dual Purpose Actives
These actives are all known for their hydrating or moisture retention capabilities (reduction of transepidermal water loss) along with at least one other skin benefit.
L-Carnitine - Improves skin hydration, promotes cellular turnover, and is a great ingredient for oily skin as it helps decrease sebum production (click here for study).
Ceramides (Vegetable Derived) - This combination of cholesterol, phytosphingosine, and ceramides help restore the barrier function to dry, sensitive, or damaged skin preventing TEWL. Ceramides have also been shown deficient in those with acne. Our ceramide complex contains the actives Ceramide NP, Ceramide AP, Ceramide EOP, Phytosphingosine, and Cholesterol.
N-Acetyl Glucosamine (NAG) - Similar in performance to niacinamide, NAG boosts collagen synthesis & hyaluronic acid production, improves skin hydration by reducing TEWL loss, increases skin elasticity, promotes wound healing, and improves skin tone.
While NAG alone can improve hyperpigmentation, studies show a statistically significant effect in hyperpigmentation when NAG is combined with niacinamide (see results here).
Centella Asiatica (Gotu kola or Indian pennyroot) - Supports wound healing and cellular rejuvenation. Studies also show that it stimulates collagen production.
Horse Chestnut (Aescin) - Clearly a great ingredient for an eye cream, horse chestnut improves circulation, reduces water retention, inhibits hyaluronidase (an enzyme that breaks down hyalronic acid), helps bruising, and is a great anti-oxidant.
It is also used to reduce redness associated with rosacea and sun exposure.
Resveratrol - A potent polyphenol anti-oxidant found in red grape skins and other plant sources, resveratrol protects skin from UV damage. Resveratrol is also anti-fungal and antibiotic in nature making it great for acne prone skin. And, finally, it reduces hyperpigmentation making it a great ingredient for those worried about age spots.